Authorities arrested 59-year-old James Robert Jones Thursday outside his job in Florida.
He was convicted of killing a fellow army private in 1974 and sentenced to 23 years at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas.
He escaped the facility in 1977.
Authorities finally caught Jones after matching his prison photo to a driver's license.
"The facial recognition database developed a positive match that Mr. Jones was actually using a fraudulent Florida drivers license and the identity of another person," said Barry Golden, U.S. Marshals Service.
Jones will be extradited to Kansas to resume his sentence. He could face additional charges related to his escape.